“Foods high in sugar, fat, and salt, and the cues that signal them, promote more of everything: more arousal…more thoughts of food…more urges to pursue food…more dopamine stimulated approach behavior…more consumption…more opioid-drive reward…more overeating to feel better…more delay in feeling full…more loss of control….more preoccupation with food…more habit driven behavior…and ultimately more weight gain.” (Kessler, 2009)
Repeated trauma may cause neurophysiological changes in the brain, specifically the amygdala which helps to regulate and modulate fear responses.
Chronic trauma is especially toxic in childhood, as it affects the developing brain and nervous system, lowering the HPA axis threshold for tolerating and managing intense, anxiety provoking situations.
“That addiction is tied to changes in brain structure and function is what makes it, fundamentally, a brain disease. A metaphorical switch in the brain seems to be thrown as a result of prolonged drug use. Initially, drug use is voluntary behavior, but when that switch is thrown, the individual moves into the state of addiction, characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use. – Leshner, 1997